The Assassination of the Archduke: Sarajevo 1914 and the Murder that Changed the World
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Two attempts were made on the archduke's life during the day. He was in Bosnia directing the manoeuvres of the Austrian Army Corps stationed in the province, and had devoted yesterday to a procession through the capital. During the morning a bomb was thrown at the imperial motor-car, but its occupants escaped unhurt. In the afternoon in another part of the town a Serb student fired a revolver at the car, killing both the archduke and the auchess.
Bosnia and Herzegovina have been in Austrian occupation since , when the Treaty of Berlin authorised the dual monarchy to hold the two provinces.
The Crisis of and the Road to War
In Austria, without consulting the other parties to the treaty, annexed the occupied territory. Austria-Hungary is, as a result of territorial divisions and constitutional differences, ruled partly by the Germans and partly by the Magyars. The Slavs, who are a great majority of the people, numbering 22,, against 11,, Germans and 9,, Magyars, remain indignantly hostile to such a political system.
Sarajevo, 6pm: The assassin of the archduke and his wife is a student named Gavrilo Prinzip. He is 19 and was born at Grahovo, in the district of Livno. He studied for some time in Belgrade. Prinzip declared he had intended for a long time to kill some eminent personage from nationalist motives.
He made his attempt where the car had to slacken speed when turning into Francis Joseph Strasse. As the duchess was in the car he hesitated, but afterwards quickly fired two shots. The archduke was regarded in certain Serbian quarters as one of the greatest opponents of the pan-Serbian movement. However, such official reports as came to hand did not seem to justify the alarmist view she took. MacKenzie writes that "the royal corpses were then stripped and brutally sabred. The new dynasty was more nationalist, friendlier to Russia and less friendly to Austria-Hungary.
These conflicts included a customs dispute with Austria-Hungary beginning in commonly referred to as the " Pig War " ;  the Bosnian crisis of —, in which Serbia assumed an attitude of protest over Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina ending in Serbian acquiescence without compensation in March ;  and finally the two Balkan Wars of —, in which Serbia acquired Macedonia and Kosovo from the Ottoman Empire and drove out Bulgaria. Serbia's military successes and Serbian outrage over the Austro-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina emboldened Serbian nationalists in Serbia and Serbs in Austria-Hungary who chafed under Austro-Hungarian rule and whose nationalist sentiments were stirred by Serb "cultural" organizations.
Under the guise of cultural activities, it operated to undermine the loyalty of Serbs in Austria-Hungary to the Habsburg regime. When I was seventeen I passed whole nights at his grave, reflecting on our wretched condition and thinking of him. It is there that I made up my mind sooner or later to perpetrate an outrage.
The Assassination of the Archduke: Sarajevo 1914 and the Murder that Changed the World
As Sophie, although of high aristocratic birth, was not from a dynastic family, her union with the Habsburg heir presumptive could only be a morganatic marriage. Emperor Franz Joseph had only consented to their marriage on the condition that their descendants would never ascend the throne. The 14th anniversary of their marriage fell on 28 June. As historian A. Taylor observes:. There was one loophole Hence, he decided, in , to inspect the army in Bosnia. There, at its capital Sarajevo, the Archduke and his wife could ride in an open carriage side by side Thus, for love, did the Archduke go to his death.
Franz Ferdinand was an advocate of increased federalism and widely believed to favor trialism, under which Austria-Hungary would be reorganized by combining the Slavic lands within the Austro-Hungarian empire into a third crown. The day of the assassination, June 28 June 15 in the Julian calendar , is the feast of St. In Serbia, it is called Vidovdan and commemorates the Battle of Kosovo against the Ottomans, at which the Sultan was assassinated in his tent by a Serb. He had worked as a school teacher and as a bank worker but in and he lived with, and outwardly off, his mother, who operated a small boarding house in Sarajevo.
Thinking the police might be after him, he threw his weapons a dagger and a bottle of poison out the train window. Agreement in principle was quickly reached, but delivery of the weapons was delayed for more than a month. They practiced shooting a few rounds of scarce and expensive. The rest of the weapons were finally delivered on 26 May. They and their weapons reached the island on 31 May.
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Six automobiles were waiting. By mistake, three local police officers got into the first car with the chief officer of special security; the special security officers who were supposed to accompany their chief got left behind. Security arrangements within Sarajevo were limited. The local military commander, General Michael von Appel, proposed that troops line the intended route but was told that this would offend the loyal citizenry.
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Protection for the visiting party was accordingly left to the Sarajevo police, of whom only about 60 were on duty on the Sunday of the visit. He too failed to act.
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The bomb bounced off the folded back convertible cover into the street. The procession sped away towards the Town Hall leaving the disabled car behind. Mayor, I came here on a visit and I am greeted with bombs. It is outrageous. Franz Ferdinand had to wait as his own speech, still wet with blood from being in the damaged car, was brought to him. To the prepared text he added a few remarks about the day's events thanking the people of Sarajevo for their ovations "as I see in them an expression of their joy at the failure of the attempt at assassination.
Officials and members of the Archduke's party discussed what to do next. The archduke's chamberlain, Baron Rumerskirch, proposed that the couple remain at the Town Hall until troops could be brought into the city to line the streets. Governor-General Oskar Potiorek vetoed this suggestion  on the grounds that soldiers coming straight from maneuvers would not have the dress uniforms appropriate for such duties. Franz Ferdinand and Sophie gave up their planned program in favor of visiting the wounded from the bombing, at the hospital. Count Harrach took up a position on the left-hand running board of Franz Ferdinand's car to protect the Archduke from any assault from the riverside of the street.
After learning that the first assassination attempt had been unsuccessful, Princip thought about a position to assassinate the Archduke on his return journey, and decided to move to a position in front of a nearby food shop Schiller's delicatessen , near the Latin Bridge. Don't die! Live for our children!
coldyniga.gq Even though most foreign royalty had planned to attend, they were pointedly disinvited and the funeral was just the immediate imperial family, with the dead couple's three children excluded from the few public ceremonies. The officer corps was forbidden to salute the funeral train, and this led to a minor revolt led by Archduke Karl , the new heir presumptive. The public viewing of the coffins was curtailed severely and even more scandalously, Montenuovo tried unsuccessfully to make the children foot the bill.
All of the assassins were eventually caught. Anti-Serb rioting broke out in Sarajevo and various other places within Austria-Hungary in the hours following the assassination until order was restored by the military. The following day, anti-Serb demonstrations in Sarajevo became more violent and could be characterized as a pogrom. The police and local authorities in the city did nothing to prevent anti-Serb violence.
The majority of the defendants were charged with conspiracy to commit high treason involving official circles in the Kingdom of Serbia. The trial was held from 12 October to 23 October with the verdict and sentences announced on 28 October The adult defendants, facing the death penalty, portrayed themselves at trial as unwilling participants in the conspiracy.
If you betray it, you and your family will be destroyed.
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When pressed for why he risked the punishment of the law, and did not take the protection of the law against these threats he responded: "I was more afraid of terror than the law. In order to refute the charge, the conspirators from Belgrade, who because of their youth did not face the death penalty, focused during the trial on putting blame on themselves and deflecting it from official Serbia and modified their court testimony from their prior depositions accordingly. Prison terms, death sentences and acquittals were as follows: .
Those under the age of 20 years at the time of the crime could receive a maximum sentence of 20 years under Austrian-Hungarian law. Mombauer, Annika: July Crisis Version 1. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. DOI : Version 1. July Crisis By Annika Mombauer. The Serbs should first be presented with a number of demands, and in case they should not accept these, energetic measures should be taken.
I take opportunity of every such occasion to advise quietly but very impressively and seriously against too hasty steps. He must, as he said before, first hear what the Imperial Chancellor had to say, but he did not doubt in the least that Herr von Bethmann Hollweg would entirely agree with him. This was especially so regarding an action on our part against Serbia. How Europe went to War in , London , re-kindled the old debate over culpability and led to soul-searching in Germany where the eve of the centenary saw a renewed interest in the origins of the First World War.
July , Oxford More recently, the thesis that war was actually improbable was tested by Afflerbach, Holger and Stevenson, David eds. Similar arguments have been made, inter alia, by Afflerbach, Holger: Der Dreibund.